The work submitted in this thesis is my own and has not been submitted in substantially the same form towards the award of another degree or other qualifying work by myself or by any other person. All sources have been referenced. Correspondence can be addressed to .

The materials needed to reproduce this thesis are available at The creation of this document drew on the R packages ‘rmarkdown’ (Xie et al., 2020) and ‘papaja’ (Aust & Barth, 2020), and the LaTeX package ‘apa7’ (Weiss, 2022). Whereas the aforementioned materials will not be further modified, readers can also consult the developing materials for Study 1 at, and those for Study 2 at

My role in Study 1 (S.-C. Chen et al., 2018) has consisted of theoretical, methodological and stylistic suggestions during the design of the study, the creation of a video demonstrating our procedure (, the collection of data from 50 participants (, and the provision of feedback about the analysis of the data and the reporting of the results. My primary supervisor, Dr. Dermot Lynott, advised me throughout this project, and he contributed to the study himself. Next, I look forward to working on the last revisions of the manuscript. The current manuscript is not included in this thesis due to its developing state. However, it has been shared with the examiners of my PhD (Dr. Margriet Groen and Prof. Max Louwerse), and the status of the project is available at The Stage I Registered Report was accepted in the journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, where the final version is expected to be published over the following months.

My role in Study 2 spanned the entire study, comprising the design of the study, the collation and preprocessing of the data, the statistical analysis, the documentation ( and the reporting. Furthermore, Dr. Dermot Lynott contributed to the design of the study and provided theoretical, methodological and stylistic advice throughout the project. My secondary supervisor, Prof. Louise Connell, contributed to the design of the study and provided occasional advice afterwards.


Aust, F., & Barth, M. (2020). papaja: Create APA manuscripts with R Markdown.
Chen, S.-C., Szabelska, A., Chartier, C. R., Kekecs, Z., Lynott, D., Bernabeu, P., Jones, B. C., DeBruine, L. M., Levitan, C., Werner, K. M., Wang, K., Milyavskaya, M., Musser, E. D., Papadatou-Pastou, M., Coles, N. A., Janssen, S., Özdoğru, A. A., Storage, D., Manley, H., … Schmidt, K. (2018). Investigating object orientation effects across 14 languages [Preprint]. PsyArXiv.
Weiss, D. A. (2022). apa7’ – Format documents in APA style (7th Edition). CTAN.
Xie, Y., Dervieux, C., & Riederer, E. (2020). R markdown cookbook. Chapman; Hall/CRC.

Pablo Bernabeu, 2022. Licence: CC BY 4.0.

Online book created using the R package bookdown.