Word frequency presented the largest effect in the three models. Orthographic Levenshtein distance was the second largest effect in the semantic decision and the lexical decision studies, whereas its phonological counterpart was not significant in any of the studies. The latter difference makes sense, as participants read the stimulus words in the three studies (Brysbaert, 2022).


Brysbaert, M. (2022). Word recognition II. In M. J. Snowling, C. Hulme, & K. Nation, The science of reading (pp. 79–101). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pablo Bernabeu, 2022. Licence: CC BY 4.0.

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