linear mixed-effects models

Mixed-effects models in R, and a new tool for data simulation

Abstract Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) are used to account for variation within factors with multiple observations, such as participants, trials, items, channels, etc (for an earlier approach, see Clark, 1973). This variation is modelled in terms of random intercepts (e.g., overall variation per participant) as well as random slopes for the fixed effects (e.g., treatment effect per participant). These measures help reduce false positives and false negatives (Barr, Levy, Scheepers, & Tily, 2013), and the resulting models tend to be robust to violations of assumptions (Schielzeth et al.

Event-related potentials: Why and how I used them

Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer a unique insight in the study of human cognition. Let’s look at their reason-to-be for the purposes of research, and how they are defined and processed. Most of this content is based on my master’s thesis (download), which I could fortunately conduct at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics (conference paper also available). Electroencephalography The brain produces electrical activity all the time, which can be measured via electrodes on the scalp—a method known as electroencephalography (EEG).

Modality switch effects emerge early and increase throughout conceptual processing: evidence from ERPs

We tested whether conceptual processing is modality-specific by tracking the time course of the Conceptual Modality Switch effect. Forty-six participants verified the relation between property words and concept words. The conceptual modality of …

Modality switches occur early and extend late in conceptual processing: evidence from ERPs [Master's thesis]

The engagement of sensory brain regions during word recognition is widely documented, yet its precise relevance is less clear. It would constitute perceptual simulation only if it has a functional role in conceptual processing. We investigated this …

Modality switch effects emerge early and increase throughout conceptual processing: evidence from ERPs

Research has extensively investigated whether conceptual processing is modality-specific—that is, whether meaning is processed to a large extent on the basis of perceptual and motor affordances (Barsalou, 2016). This possibility challenges long-established theories. It suggests a strong link between physical experience and language which is not borne out of the paradigmatic arbitrariness of words (see Lockwood, Dingemanse, & Hagoort, 2016). Modality-specificity also clashes with models of language that have no link to sensory and motor systems (Barsalou, 2016).